Background and Objective: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) can affect newborn of all gestational ages and often is clinically silent. Germinal matrix hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is most common in the premature population. Estimated of frequency have changed over the last 20 years. Currently, large series report a 15% prevalence in infants <32 weeks GM-IVH is reliably diagnosed with ultrasonography routine screening for GM-IVH is performed in infants <30 weeks or >1250g at birth
Material and Methods: All the newborns whom met the inclusion criteria were included in the study, they all had a brain sonography in the first 48 hrs after, and in case of finding any abnormality sonography was performed every week until discharge. For those who had a normal sonography, no further sonography was performed an expert pediatric radiologist performed the sonographies in sagittal and coronal planes the size of corpus collosum, lateral ventricles, inter hemispheric fissure and subarachnoid spaces were measured. (My lab 70 Esaote)
Abnormal cystic regions in white and grey matter were evaluated and abnormal findings were documented.
Results: Finally, 100 cases were included in the study GMH had a frequency of 28(28%) in our study. Among those with GMH 18 were male and 10 were female. There were no significant differences between the two sex groups in this regard. (P value=0.5.2), 7 of these infants were delivered through normal vaginal delivery and 21 through c/section. There was no significant difference between the two groups in this regard. (p value=0.010). Mean gestational age among the group with positive history of bleeding was 29 weeks and 31 weeks among those with negative history of bleeding. (p value=0.005).
Mean birth weight with positive history of bleeding was 1292 gr and 1490 gr with no bleeding. (p value=0.035) in both groups the highest frequency belonged to first time pregnancies. (p value=0.667).
Regarding the grade of bleeding, grade I with 23 cases (82.1%) had the highest frequency, grade 3 and 4 each had cases (7.1%) and grade 2 had 1 cases (3.6%). Regarding the frequency of PVL, only 6 infants (6%) had cystic PVL were detected.
Conclusion: The prevalence of IVH in our study was close to other studies conducted in Iran, but was significantly higher than the western studies. Also studies showed that the prevalence of IVH decreased during to higher quality of perinatal care and delivery.